Dual-use products and weapons of mass destruction
Parties seeking to procure weapons of mass destruction and components of such weaponry have directed efforts through Finland and Finnish operators. They also seek to use Finland as a route for obtaining export-controlled dual-use items and other sensitive technology through individual businesses and procurement networks.
Dual-use items are technologies, services and products that are not only capable of serving civilian uses, but also have military applications. Businesses require a special licence to export controlled dual-use items to destinations outside the European Union. Efforts have been made to exploit business acquisitions, research partnerships and other operations in order to circumvent such export restrictions.
Foreign powers are seeking to boost the technological development of their armed forces through procurement and foreign expertise. Quantum technology and the components required for a quantum computer are one field of technology that is targeted in Western countries, including Finland.
No change to Finland’s role in the dual-use item supply chain is likely in the short term. Superpowers actively apply export restrictions as a key component of international policy, with new technologies and organisations likely to be subject to export controls in the short term.
Probability terms used in the report
Improbable 20 %
Possible 50 %
Probable 75 %
Highly probable 90 %
Time assessments used in the report
Short term 6 months–2 years
Medium term 2–5 years
Long term over 5 years