Threats to critical infrastructure

Critical infrastructure is a long-term target of foreign intelligence operations in Finland. Authoritarian states can also access Finland’s critical infrastructure through legitimate activities, such as business acquisitions and joint ventures.

Illustration: an open cargo ship bow in the evening with trucks.

Operators from authoritarian states have been interested in investing in Finland’s fixed infrastructure, but few such investments have been made to date. Besides traditional fixed infrastructure, such as real estate and production facilities, critical infrastructure also includes telecommunications, and the data required for information networks and managing critical infrastructure.

Finnish network infrastructure projects have attracted the interest of operators from China and other countries.

Telecommunications and information assets.

Critical infrastructure includes among other things telecommunications and information assets, energy production, food and medicine supplies, transport networks, payment flows and banks. 


Interest in infrastructure and telecommunication investments will probably continue. The risk to the information infrastructure is particularly high, as this can give authoritarian administrations access not only to the infrastructure itself, but also to Finnish information.

Increased monitoring of business acquisitions and investments will probably hamper the ability of authoritarian states to invest in critical functions in Finland.


Probability terms used in the report 

Highly improbable 5 % 
Improbable 20 % 
Possible 50 % 
Probable 75 % 
Highly probable 90 % 

Time assessments used in the report

In the near future 0–6 months 
Short term 6 months–2 years 
Medium term 2–5 years 
Long term over 5 years